Thursday, August 9th, 2007
Here's how to set up a jailed / chrooted SFTP/SCP environment for a single user:
Note: This is a little specific for Debian in some places, but it should work for other distributions too. You may need to tweak the jailkit configurations in
/etc/jailkit/jk_init.ini a bit.
Get jailkit (http://olivier.sessink.nl/jailkit/index.html#download). Jailkit is an awesome tool that'll allow you to set up minimal jails by inspecting which libs are used by binaries and copying them, the binaries and some other directories to a seperate dir, which can be used as a chrooted environment.
Get Jailkit and install it:
$ wget http://olivier.sessink.nl/jailkit/jailkit-2.4.tar.bz2 $ tar -xjf jailkit-2.4.tar.bz2 $ cd jailkit-2.4 $ ./configure $ make $ make install
Now, create a new normal user like you would normally do. In a moment, we'll use jailkit to move this user to the jail.
$ adduser --disabled-password public
Set up the jail. You can't do this in /home! (You can move everything to /home later if you want to).
$ mkdir /jail $ chown root:root /jail $ chmod 755 /jail $ jk_init -v -j /jail/public/ sftp scp jk_lsh
This copies all the library files sftp and scp need to /jail/public. If you look at /etc/jailkit/jk_init.ini, you'll see sections there for the sftp, scp and jk_lsh programs. They include some directories to include in the copy, etc. jk_lsh is a minimal, restricted shell for the jail environment that restricts what commands can be run in the jail environment. In this case, it will limit commands to sftp and scp.
Now, we move the public user to the jail:
$ jk_jailuser -m -j /jail/public/ public
Edit the /jail/public/etc/jailkit/jk_lsh.ini file and add which program the jailed user may run. In this case, scp and sftp-server.
[public] paths= /usr/bin, /usr/lib/ executables= /usr/bin/scp, /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server
Just to be sure, check if the executables exist:
$ ls /jail/public/usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server $ ls /jail/public/usr/bin/scp
If you want, move the /jail/public to /home/ and edit /etc/passwd to reflect this change.
$ mv /jail/public /home/public $ vim /etc/passwd
and change the homedir for user public from /jail/public/./home/public to: /home/public/./home/public (Yes, that's correct).
$ rmdir /jail/
If you want to add public key authentication:
$ mkdir /home/public/home/public/.ssh $ chown public:public /home/public/home/public/.ssh $ vim /home/public/home/public/.ssh/authorized_keys2
Add the public key to the authorized_keys2 file.
You can place directories from outside the jail inside the jail using mount:
$ mount --bind /storage/sound/mp3/ /jail/public/home/public/mp3/
[todsah@jib]~$ sftp public@sharky Connecting to sharky... Password: sftp> ls mp3 sftp> ls / /dev /etc /home /lib /usr sftp> ls mp3 mp3/10 CC mp3/Aeternus mp3/After Forever mp3/Air mp3/Alborada mp3/Alter Bridge mp3/Aphix Twin mp3/Apocalyptica mp3/Arch Enemy mp3/Autumn mp3/Bachmann Turner Overdrive mp3/Beethoven etc.
There's tons of other cool stuff you can do with Jailkit. Check out the HowTo's on the Jailkit homepage.
Oh, and the size?:
[root@sharky]/home# du -hs public/ 4.1M public/
Remember that you need to regularly do a jk_update -j /jail/public/ to update the files in the jail! Remember that a jail has files (libraries, executables) that are copies of the main system. So any security fixes in files in the main system aren't reflected in the jail until you do an jk_update!